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Moisture analysis plays a vital role in many areas of the chemical industry, including inspections at goods-in, quality control, and the development of new products. To guarantee the best quality and appearance of the products as well as high productivity, accurate and fast moisture analysis is important.
Primary methods include Karl Fisher and loss on drying, secondary methods include electrical methods, microwave, nuclear, and near-Infrared.
There are two major categories of KF systems or methods: volumetric and coulometric. The major differences are that:
Based on the thermogravimetric principle, a substance is heated until it is completely dry. Final weight loss weight is the moisture content of the sample.
Methods of using electricity to measure humidity rely on dielectric principles, including conductance, radio frequency (RF). For most common solid materials, the dielectric constant is between 2 and 4. However, the dielectric constant of water (77-84) is much higher than that of these materials, and with this large variance, the water content of a solid can be calculated by measuring the dielectric constant of the solid.
The resonant frequency of microwave resonator varies with water content. The sample radiates an extremely low-power electromagnetic field through the head of the microwave moisture sensor. These changes are detected electronically by the sensor. They are then measured with "unscaled units" that are scaled through a calibration process to provide an accurate reading of the current humidity.
In the nuclear moisture meter technology, energy is radiated into (or through) the sample and the amount of energy absorbed by the sample measured. Beta radiation (neutrons) is used for moisture and sometimes Gamma radiation is used to simultaneously measure sample density. The relationship between absorbed energy (high energy or “fast” neutrons) and moisture content is then calculated to create a calibration curve. Once calibrated for a specific product, this method provides instant, non-contact, non-destructive moisture measurement.
NIR moisture meters measure the absorbance and reflectance of light to determine the moisture levels: The more light that is absorbed, the higher the moisture content. The light is filtered into a wavelength, or in some cases, multiple wavelengths. The light that is reflected back to the device is converted using an algorithm to provide an accurate reading.
Chemists from Alfa Chemistry have a great deal of experience in the tests of chemicals. Our experienced chemists are pleased to work with you to solve your problems in scientific research and industrial applications. Alfa Chemistry offers moisture tests of various chemicals. Please feel free to contact us for more details.